Securing a constant, reliable, sustainable supply of biomass is a critical success factor for a bioenergy project.Estimates of available biomass have been done at a number of levels.
CSIRO suggests that in high production years many grain-growing areas could probably support stubble-based bioenergy facilities, but that in poor production years the areas that could reliably produce enough stubble are limited.
Bioenergy opportunities for grain growers were explored by CSIRO in 2008. They estimated that 65 Mt of stubble was produced in 2001, but only 29 Mt were potentially available for harvest after harvestability and sustainability considerations.
In poor years, they say, the amount of stubble potentially available for harvest could drop by 70% or more.
The greatest concentrations of stubble were found to be in:
- the New South Wales Slopes
- the Wimmera and Mallee in Victoria
- the Yorke Peninsula and Eyre Peninsula regions of South Australia.
Each of these hotspots had several locations with potential for more than 500,000 tonnes of stubble to be harvested within 50 kilometres.
The availability of crop stubble as a potential biofuel resource was assessed by CSIRO in 2008.
Not much has been published about stubble production and the implications of harvesting it, they say.
The most common method of estimating stubble production, researchers say, is from grain yield data and knowledge about the ratio of grain to total above-ground biomass—this is known as the harvest index, or HI.
They used a survey of field trials reporting harvest index, ABS production statistics and APSIM simulations to assess how much biomass might be available in different regions and what factors might affect stubble production.
Although the harvest index varied between years and regions, robust spatial estimates of stubble production can be obtained from grain production data and harvest index.
In many farming systems, some stubble will be left to maintain soil cover, input to soil carbon or animal feed.
The amount of stubble potentially available for harvesting, they say, is considerably less than the total stubble production, and the amount likely to be worth harvesting on a regional basis will be even smaller.
New South Wales
- dead native trees
- sawmill waste
- plantation thinnings (silvicultural waste)
- Recycled construction timber
- urban ‘green debris’
- wood from thinned farm woodlots or shelterbelts
- purpose-grown firewood
- native forest silvicultural waste
- horticultural waste products such as olive pips and nut shells
- woody weeds such as willow, pine, poplars, privet, box elder and honey locust.
The company investigated commercial conversion technologies, mapped potential biomass feedstocks for those technologies and explored the potential for new purpose-grown biomass crops.
By matching biomass feedstock information to companies with a demand for both electricity and heat, Jacobs arrived at a number of ‘hotspot’ areas in the state.
The report, A bio-energy roadmap for South Australia, and an interactive bioenergy roadmap were launched on 24 November 2015.
The interactive map shows locations of:
- energy demand
- waste streams
- purpose-grown biomass crops
- bioenergy hotspots.
- native forest regrowth
- wood-processing residues.
- Dorset Renewable Industries investigated opportunities for establishing a biofuel production plant in Scottsdale: Dorset Woody Biomass Pre-Feasibility Study 2013. They found that sufficient woody biomass is available within a 65 km radius of the township to sustainably supply a plant over a 20-year lifespan at the rate of 150,000 green tonnes a year.
- Huon Valley Diversified Industries Incorporated investigated opportunities for establishing biofuel or bioenergy production in Huonville: Huon Woody Biomass Pre-Feasibility Study 2013. They found that sufficient woody biomass is available within a 34 km radius of the township to sustainably supply a plant over a 20-year lifespan at the rate of 150,000 green tonnes a year.
These studies include:
- CSIRO’s Regional estimates of Victorian biomass resources, which consolidates and validates a series of studies conducted in each major Victorian region
- the Victorian Department of Primary Industries’ 2011 research into the potential for bioenergy crop production on marginal and under-resourced land
- URS’s 2010 study of biomass resources in Victoria’s timber industry.
Estimated tonnes/year of available biomass are published for the following regions:
Sippy Downs, Qld 4556
Phone: 07 5456 5447
Sippy Downs, Qld 4556
Phone: 0437 536 865
Level 11, 121 Exhibition Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000,
Phone: (03) 9027 5438
RenewablesSA, Low Carbon Economy Unit, DPC, Level 16, 200 Victoria Square, Adelaide, SA
Phone: 087 8429 5084
444 Albany Hwy, , Albany WA 6330
Phone: 0428 939 419